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361-25 Pair of Tonto Apache ear pendants; cotton string, abalone shell, glass beads; l. (whole specimen) 7 and 10 cm.; ca. 1880. Both men and women might wear ear pendants, and Ten Kate recorded...

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361-25 Pair of Tonto Apache ear pendants; cotton string, abalone shell, glass beads; l. (whole specimen) 7 and 10 cm.; ca. 1880. Both men and women might wear ear pendants, and Ten Kate recorded that these were women's. One is longer than the other, but both are simply large white, blue, black and red white-heart glass beads strung on commercial cotton thread, with an irregularly shaped pendant of abalone shell (Haliotis sp.). Abalone shells come only from the California coast, but any owned by Western Apaches was obtained through trade with various middlemen, including Zunis (Goodwin 1942:81). As such, these ear pendants were probably highly valued, with abalone pendants being more commonly used in special contexts such as a girl's forehead pendant at her naihes ceremony, or as an amulet on a medicine man's cap. This set was collected in June/July 1883 at San Carlos or Camp Apache, Arizona. 361-20 through 25 Apache jewelry Ten Kate remarked that the Apaches did little or no body or face painting, although face painting is known to have been done by both men and women for various social occasions, and by men returning from raids (Ferg 1987:fig. 3.6). Tattooing was rare, and he saw only a few individuals with small bluish figures on their faces. Jewelry was the primary form of personal adornment, including hair ornaments, earrings, necklaces, bracelets and finger rings. These items incorporate various beads and pendants, some of which Western Apaches could obtain themselves, and others that had to be obtained by trade, raid or purchase. Ten Kate wrote: "The Apaches have few ornaments, and these consist primarily of necklaces and bracelets of beads, red beans, and the bark of a certain plant called yerba del manso (Anemopsis californica) by the Mexicans. This bark, which has the color of cork, is characterized by a distinct, aromatic fragrance and astringent taste and is also chewed by the Indians because they maintain it is good for their gums." Glass beads, of course, came from the outside world. In the 1800s, large size "pony" and "trade" beads seem to predominate, and were strung on necklaces and earrings, as we see among Ten Kate's specimens. As traders started carrying more small seed beads, these were strung in quantity as simple loops, flat woven beadwork items, and sewn onto buckskin clothing and accessories. Early beads included red beads with a white center, known variously as cornaline d'Aleppo, Hudson Bay, or "white-heart" beads. Ten Kate's "red beans" are beads made from red seeds, either coral beans (Erythrina flabelliformis) or mescal beans (Sophora secundiflora). Both have shiny seeds, so hard that they are generally perforated for stringing by burning a hole through the seed coat with a hot wire or metal awl, rather than trying to drill a hole. Coral beans grow in southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and on south into Old Mexico. Mescal beans are found in extreme southeastern New Mexico, much of southern Texas, and on south into Old Mexico (Merrill 1977:fig. 3). As such, in the 1800s, Chiricahuas and Western Apaches generally used coral beans, and Mescaleros used mescal beans. Yerba del manso, also known as Yerba mansa, could also have been collected by Western Apaches themselves. It grows in cienegas and swampy places. Coral-colored stolons, or runners, grow outward, and were cut into segments and used as beads that had a strong, pleasant fragrance. Ten Kate's note about Apaches chewing it to promote healthy gums was also a practice in Hispanic communities throughout the Southwest and northern Mexico (Ford 1975:341-343), and continued on into the 1900s (Rea 1997:215). Kralen en kettingen kunnen zeer verschillen in zowel stijl als materiaal. Door de handel en contact met de verschillende bevolkingsgroepen werden deze ook verwerkt in de stijl van de kettingen. Deze kettingen werd gedragen aan het oor.


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