Insigne voor ambtenaren en officiers. Deze insignes worden per paar gedragen en kunnen een verscheidenheid aan figuren afbeelden, waarbij de motieven per rang door de geschiedenis heen verschillende malen zijn aangepast, met name ter vereenvoudiging. De laatste hervorming vond plaats in 1871, toen ambtenaren insignes met kraanvogels kregen en officiers insignes met tijgers gingen dragen. De dubbele kraanvogel geeft de hogere rang van de ambtenaar aan en is relatief recent (na 1871). Insignia for civil (munshin) and military officials (mushin) come in pairs and appear in many variations. Over the course of history, the motifs and the ranks they represent have been altered several times, mostly for the sake of simplification. The last reform took place in 1871, when civil officials came to be indicated by cranes and military officials by tigers. The presence of a double crane or double tiger represents higher-level officials. The examples shown here come from different sets, but both are of the double-crane type, indicating that they are of relatively recent make (post-1871). Rank badges or mandarin squares, hyungbae, are embroidered on official robe, called dallyŏngp'o, which is a daily suit of an official. The hyungbae shows not only the hierarchy of the Chosŏn period, but also women's skillful embroidery. In early Chosŏn, its size was relatively big and the pattern was simple, but later on it became smaller and had diversified patterns. Throughout Korea's recorded history, courtier's dress was determined by official rank. The Great Code of Administration of 1485 promulgated definitive instructions about the dress to be worn at the various ceremonies which constituted the calendar of court life, and specified the rank badges to be worn by civil and military officials. The twin crane design had been assigned to civil officials of the first, second and third ranks. Those of the fourth to ninth ranks were to wear single crane motifs. Military officials wore rank badges with animal designs: double leopards for the first, second and third ranks, and a single leopard for the others. The twin crane rank badge was intended for a civil official of the first to third rank, suggesting high-minded integrity, the ideal for civil officials. The two cranes dominating the design have outstretched wings among stylized clouds, and hold a piece of pulloch'o, the 'plant of eternal youth', in their beaks. The design is embroidered on figured silk satin or damask, and the whole square is interlined with paper. The rocks and waves that lie under the cranes are meticulously stitched. A chequered effect is created for the rocks, and close-sewn raised contrasting bands form the waves. Enclosed in a circle in the centre of the rock is a swastika. The stylized waves are raised from the surface by couching tightly rolled pieces of paper on to the pattern before sewing over the top with silk. The feathers and outline of the cranes are also raised, with thread padding formed by stitches. Thousands of pairs of rank badges depicting cranes in flight have survived, and although the artistic vocabulary of rocks, clouds waves and 'plant of eternal youth' remained constant for 300 years, the designs, relations of clouds to crane, length and shape of the plant in the bird's peak, and composition of the central rock with surrounding waves appear in infinite variety. Korea's embroiderers, who were almost always women, brought a creative touch to their work. Most rank badges were sewn either by women in the family of the official who wore them, or in a workshop that produced embroidery to commission. The hungbae for the royal family was called po. It was a symbol of a king, a crown prince, an eldest grandson of a king, a queen, and a crown princess. It was mostly attached to kollyŏngp'o, a daily suit for king. It was a round form and attached on the chest, the back and the both shoulders. The legislation of the hyungbae (official insignia) system in the early Joseon period indeed noteworthy. Such a system which was related to the development of chasu required the systemisation of government offices' manual work. It peaked during the 15th century, which was the early part of Joseon. Hyungbae refers to the embroidered emblem that represented the rank of the government's civil and military officials. It was first implemented during the first year of King Tanjong's reign (1453). Later, after several modifications, the hyungbae system was improved and the emblems gradually became luxurious.